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Papers by Satya Ganti, President & CEO

Earthworms and Amino Acids in Soil
Castings of earthworms have been reported to contain amino acids. In the present paper, a comparative study on the presence of free amino acids was made using two species of earthworms commonly found in Bombay (now Mumbai) namely Pheretima posthuma and Pontoscolex corethrurus and using soil as control. The study showed that cysteine that was not recorded in soil was found in the castings of P. corethrurus suggesting improvement of nutritive value of soil by the species. Published in Curr. Sci. Vol 33 (7): 219-220; 1964.
Preliminary Studies on Earthworms in Relation to Soil
The papers describes changes in the chemical constituents like total nitrogen, organic matter and calcium carbonate in the soil that passes through the gut and released in the form of castings. Published in Proceedings of National Science Academy, Allahabad, India Vol: 33 pp: 193 -197; 1963
Habitat and Habitat Selection by Umbonium vestiarium Linn
Umbonium vestiarium Linn a Trochid gastropod is very common on the sandy beaches of Bombay (now Mumbai) and is generally restricted in the mid tide zone indicating habitat selection by the species. Paper presents studies made with the sands made unattractive by acid washing or by detergents were not selected by the species but the sand inoculated with bacteria, dinoflagellate or algal metabolite was readily inhabitated by U. vestiarium. Published in Proc. Indian National Sci. Acad. Vol. 38 (B): pp: 273-287; 1972
Some Factors Influencing the Settlement of Barnacle Larvae in the Laboratory
Studies on laboratory rearing of larvae of Balanus amphitrite Amphitrite from the first stage naupli to metamorphosis to cyprids have been made with respect to food and other environmental conditions. It was possible to record more than 40% of first stage naupli to metamorphose into cyprids with proper algal food. Published in J.mar.biol.assoc. India, Vol 16 (2): 455-461, 1974
Prevention of Marine Fouling in Conduits by Electrolytic Chlorine Generation Technique
Fouling of sea water inlets by marine fouling organisms is very common. In the paper evaluation of electrolytic chlorine generation using platinum electrodes under both field and shipboard conditions has been presented showing a method for effective control of fouling organisms at Visakhapatnam port. Published in Science and Culture Vol.: 39: 549-551, 1973.
Studies on Respiration in Relation to Body Size and Oxygen Tension in the Pelecypod Congeria sallei Recluz.
The paper describes the respiration by a marine fouling mollusk Congeria sallei reclassified as Mytilopsis sallei Recluz a sister species to the Zebra mussel. It has been found that the smaller is the size of the mollusk, higher is the rate of respiration. The metabolic rate in the animals reduced with reduction in the oxygen in the sea water and below the levels of 2.5 ppm of oxygen there was sudden decline. Published in the Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 53 (B): 163-171; 1974
Metabolism in Mytilopsis sallei Recluz.(Pelecypoda): Influence of Temperature
Mytilopsis sallei has migrated to Indian waters from Central America as an invasive species showing tolerance to wide range of temperatures. The species is normally intertidal and has to experience wide variations in temperatures. In the present paper metabolic rates were determined at various temperatures starting with 5 C to 40 C with an increment of 5 C. Published in Curr. Sci. Vol. 44(4): 110-112; 1975
Microbial growths on Avcat Fuel and hydraulic fluids used on board Naval ships
Studies were carried out on growth bacteria and fungi on water based hydraulic fluid, oil based hydraulic fluid and aviation fuel and their growth characteristics were determined on various nutritive media. Growth of isolated species was also studied in mineral salts medium with the hydraulic oil and aviation fuel as the only source of organic carbon. Several fungal species showed heavy mycelial growth at the interface of oil and mineral salts medium. Studies were also carried out on commercially available biocides to prevent such growths in the fuels. Proc. Silver Jubilee Symp. Preservation of Service Stores, 1969.
Resistance of some timbers of Andhra Pradesh against marine borer attack at four ports of India
Studies on the natural durability of timbers towards marine borers were made on 12 structural timbers grown in the forests of Andhra Pradesh, a state in India. The intensity of marine borers was highest in Andaman waters followed by Goa, then Bombay or Mumbai and last was Visakhapatnam harbor. The least activity of marine borers recorded at Visakhapatnam harbor may be due to increased pollution levels in the harbor and this may be affecting the borer population which was comparable to that in Andaman waters during 1960's.
Resistance of some timbers of Andaman islands against marine borer attack at five ports of India
6 species of structural timbers grown in Andaman islands have been investigated with respect to their resistance to marine wood borers. Two timbers namely Andaman padauk and Pyinma have shown performance nearly euual to that of Teak. The study was carried out at 5 ports in India.
Association of mudworm Polydora ligni Webster with Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) (Pelecypoda)
Many species of Polydora have been reported in association with oyster shells in different countries. This is the first report of Polydora ligni in association with the shells of Pelecypod Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz). This is the first time report on association with any species in India.
A successful method of preventing fouling in seawater conduits by electrolytic chlorine generation
Seawater circulating systems of Naval ships are subjected to heavy settlement of fouling organisms. In Visakhapatnam harbor, the fouling by Mytilopsis sallei virtually blocks the inlet preventing uniform flow of water. A design of electrolytic chlorine generation method is described that has shown successful results on ship board trials.
The intensity and distribution of marine wood borers at various ports in India
Studies on the effect of marine wood borers on various structural timbers exposed to five harbors of Naval interest. The destruction of timbers was severe at Port Blair in Andaman Islands, followed y Goa, Cochin, Bombay and least in Visakhapatnam. The destruction of timbers by species of crustacean wood borer Limnoria was very heavy in Andaman waters and it was difficult to determine the predominant borer contributing to the destruction in the harbor. Visakhapatnam harbor was relatively safe from the point of borer damage and this is attributed to both pollution and to the change in faunal composition in the harbor. Mytilopsis sallei a fouling species seems to have invaded the harbor preventing settlement of any other fouling organisms and the same may even be preventing the settlement of the wood boring species.
Oxygen consumption and metabolic rate in relation to body size in Martesia straita (Linn)
Martesia striata (Linn) is a predominant pholadid marine wood borer in Visakhapatnam waters. Studies were therefore made on the oxygen consumption by M. striata with relation to body size and the results are presented. It has been shown that the oxygen consumption is size dependent and it increases with the size of the animal and varies from 0.131 to 0.7880 ml/liter per hour.
Design and development of an electrolytic chlorine system for prevention of fouling in seawater cooling systems
The paper describes design of in situ electrolytic chlorine generation evaluated both in field and shipboard trails carried out at Visakhapatnam harbor in India.
Investigations on the natural durability of indigenous timbers for use in marine construction
A comprehensive study was carried out to identify indigenous structural timbers that show a good degree of resistance to the large populations of marine wood borers particularly in harbors of Naval interest. Some of the timbers available locally from Andaman Island have shown a performance nearer to that of Teak.
Biodispersion as a method for removal of hydrocarbon oil from marine aqueous environments
US Patent number 6,267,888
Laboratory assays of Tributyltin toxicity to some common marine organisms
A bio-assay study on the effect of TBTO on seven species local to Bombay harbor was made to determine the Environment Quality Target values for TBTO using both acute 96 hour and chronic 28 day conditions. The species selected were both sedentary and a fish Therapon jarbua and the toxicity values varied from species to species. Mytilopsis sallei showed the highest tolerance of 13.0 mg/liter LC-50/28 days whereas Perna viridis was highly sensitive showing LC -50/28 days of 0.28 mg/liter. The LC -50 value for the marine fish Therapon jarbua 0.4 mg/liter. A wide variety of chemical pollutants are reported to accumulate in the body tissues hence the study also determined the amount of TBTO accumulated in the tissues of the test animals. The Bio Concentration Factor (BCF) for each was determined for Perna viridis and Crassostrea sp. and It was found that the value was inversely proportional the concentration of TBTO with BCF more at low concentration of TBTO.
Environmentally influenced degradation of fiber reinforced composites
Degradation of two fiber reinforced polymer composites was studied to exposure to aggressive environments that included a 21 day exposure to culture of anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria was compared with the decomposition in high water temperatures and in 1 N sulfuric acid. It was seen that both vinyl ester and isopthalic ester composites were susceptible to lose rigidity and the interwoven pattern was also affected. Changes in the FRP structure was recorded on Scanning Electron Microscopy.
Effect of extreme salinity conditions on the survival of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) (Pelecypoda)
Effects of salinity conditions, ranging from fresh water to 80‰, on the survival of marine molluscan fouling species, Mytilopsis sallei Recluz, have been studied in the laboratory. The results show that the species exhibits a wide tolerance to different salinity conditions including freshwater, showing normal activity up to 50‰ beyond which the higher salt concentration had a lethal effect. The effect of various salinity conditions on spawning has also been examined. The significance of wide range tolerance to salinity on the fouling in seawater cooling systems is discussed. Hydrobiologia 46: 199-206; 1975